The role of green leafhoppers (WH) in the rice cropping system is essential because GLH is a vector of tungro disease, one of Indonesia’s most important viral diseases. The ability of GLH as an inhibitor in the rice farming system is highly dependent on tungro virus disease. As a pest, GLH is commonly found in technically irrigated rice systems and rain-fed ecosystems but is not common in upland rice ecosystems. GLH sucks the liquid from inside the leaf margins and does not like the midrib or the middle leaves. GLH causes yellow to orange-yellow rice leaves, decreased tiller number, and stunted plant growth (shortened). Fertilization of high nitrogen elements significantly triggers the development of GLH.
GLH is generally controlled in a package with tungro control. It is recommended to plant tungro-resistant varieties such as Tukad, Petanu, Kalimas, and Bondoyudo and use insecticides. Several insecticides are effective, especially with active ingredients such as BPMC, bufrezin, imidcloprid, carbofuran, MIPC, or tiamethoxam. Nephottetix virescens N. nigropictus N. cinticeps N. malayanus
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides (Guenée), Mythimna separata (Walker), Spodoptera exempta (Walker), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) rarely destroy rice. Adult moths are nocturnal. At night, the adults eat, copulate, and migrate, while the moths rest at the base of the plant during the day. Moths are very attracted to light.
Larvae are very voracious, and attacks occur in all phases of rice plant growth, starting from seedling, especially in dry nurseries, to the filling phase.
Birds attack rice plants in the milk ripening phase until the seeds ripen (before harvest). The attack resulted in empty seeds, symptoms such as outskirts, and many seeds were lost. Birds should be controlled by:
Bird watchers start from 6-10 am and 2-6 pm because these times are critical times for plants attacked by birds. Use nets to isolate rice fields from bird attacks; the area of isolated rice fields is less than 0.
Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) The brown planthopper (BPH) has been one of the main pests of rice in Indonesia since the mid-1970s. This is a consequence of applying a rice intensification system (high yielding varieties, high doses of N fertilization, application of IP>200, etc.). The use of pesticides that violate the rules of IPM (right type, correct dose, and timely application) also triggers the brown planthopper explosion. Depending on the level of damage, a brown planthopper attack can increase rice yield losses from only a few quintals of grain to crop failure.