Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) The brown planthopper (BPH) has been one of the main pests of rice in Indonesia since the mid-1970s. This is a consequence of applying a rice intensification system (high yielding varieties, high doses of N fertilization, application of IP>200, etc.). The use of pesticides that violate the rules of IPM (right type, correct dose, and timely application) also triggers the brown planthopper explosion. Depending on the level of damage, a brown planthopper attack can increase rice yield losses from only a few quintals of grain to crop failure. In addition, BPH is also a vector of grass dwarf and empty dwarf virus diseases.
By sucking fluid from the transport tissue of rice plants, BPH can cause mild to severe damage in almost all growth phases, from the seedling and tillering until the milk ripening phase (filling). Symptoms of BPH in individual clumps can be seen from the leaves yellowing, then the plant dries up quickly (like a burn). This symptom is known as hopper burn. In a stretch, the hopper burn symptom is seen as a circle showing a BPH distribution pattern starting from one point and then spreading in all directions. In such circumstances, the BPH population is usually already very high.
BPH can be controlled with resistant varieties. Rice planting with not too close spacing, alternation of types, and insecticides are too effective in controlling this pest. BPH resistant varieties, depending on the biotype that develops in an ecosystem. Endemic areas of BPH Biotype 1 can plant, among others, the Memberamo, Widas, and Cimelati varieties; for biotypes 2 and 3, Memberamo, Cigeulis, and Ciapus. Various effective insecticides include those with active ingredients such as amitraz, bupofresin, beauveria bassi-ana 6.20x1010 cfu/ml, BPMC, fipronil, amidacloprid, carbofuran, carbosulfan, metol-carb, MIPCI, propoxur, or tiamethoxane.
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides (Guenée), Mythimna separata (Walker), Spodoptera exempta (Walker), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) rarely destroy rice. Adult moths are nocturnal. At night, the adults eat, copulate, and migrate, while the moths rest at the base of the plant during the day. Moths are very attracted to light.
Larvae are very voracious, and attacks occur in all phases of rice plant growth, starting from seedling, especially in dry nurseries, to the filling phase.
Birds attack rice plants in the milk ripening phase until the seeds ripen (before harvest). The attack resulted in empty seeds, symptoms such as outskirts, and many seeds were lost. Birds should be controlled by:
Bird watchers start from 6-10 am and 2-6 pm because these times are critical times for plants attacked by birds. Use nets to isolate rice fields from bird attacks; the area of isolated rice fields is less than 0.
Melanitis leda ismene Cramer Moths are not attracted to light. The moth is in the form of a giant butterfly, which is very easy to recognize because there are spots shaped like eyes on its wings. Larvae have 2 pairs of horns, one pair at the tip of the head and the other pair at the end of the abdomen. Larvae cause damage to plants, eating leaves starting from the edges and tips of the leaves.