Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius), or rice bug, is a common pest that damages rice grains during the ripening phase. The mechanism of damage is sucking grain grains that are filling. When disturbed, insects will defend themselves by emitting a smell. Apart from being a self-defense mechanism, the scent released is also used to attract other bugs of the same species. Rice bug damages the plant when it reaches the flowering phase until the milk matures. The damage causes the rice to change color and calcify, and the grain becomes empty. This pest can be controlled through several steps, such as:
Use insecticides when necessary and preferably in the morning or evening when the bug is in the canopy. The use of insecticides (if needed) includes the active ingredients:
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides (Guenée), Mythimna separata (Walker), Spodoptera exempta (Walker), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) rarely destroy rice. Adult moths are nocturnal. At night, the adults eat, copulate, and migrate, while the moths rest at the base of the plant during the day. Moths are very attracted to light.
Larvae are very voracious, and attacks occur in all phases of rice plant growth, starting from seedling, especially in dry nurseries, to the filling phase.
Birds attack rice plants in the milk ripening phase until the seeds ripen (before harvest). The attack resulted in empty seeds, symptoms such as outskirts, and many seeds were lost. Birds should be controlled by:
Bird watchers start from 6-10 am and 2-6 pm because these times are critical times for plants attacked by birds. Use nets to isolate rice fields from bird attacks; the area of isolated rice fields is less than 0.
Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) The brown planthopper (BPH) has been one of the main pests of rice in Indonesia since the mid-1970s. This is a consequence of applying a rice intensification system (high yielding varieties, high doses of N fertilization, application of IP>200, etc.). The use of pesticides that violate the rules of IPM (right type, correct dose, and timely application) also triggers the brown planthopper explosion. Depending on the level of damage, a brown planthopper attack can increase rice yield losses from only a few quintals of grain to crop failure.