Melanitis leda ismene Cramer Moths are not attracted to light. The moth is in the form of a giant butterfly, which is very easy to recognize because there are spots shaped like eyes on its wings. Larvae have 2 pairs of horns, one pair at the tip of the head and the other pair at the end of the abdomen. Larvae cause damage to plants, eating leaves starting from the edges and tips of the leaves. The growth phase of the attacked plant is from the tillering phase to panicle formation.
In addition to rice plants, these insects have other hosts such as grasses, sugarcane, sorghum, Anastrophus sp, Imperata sp, and Panicum spp. This pest should be controlled by utilizing natural enemies, such as the egg parasite Trichogrammatidae. Therefore, chemical control with insecticides is not recommended when the plants are 30 days after transplanting or 40 days after sowing.
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
The high population of this pest can occur from the nursery to the maximum tiller. The young larvae scar the plant’s epidermis, leaving the white underside of the leaves. Mature larvae feed on the leaf margins. Larvae move like Spanish caterpillars by arching their backs.
Rice plants that are given a high dose of fertilizer are very popular with this pest—the population increases during the rainy season. Moths are active at night, day, and during the day hiding at the base of the plant or in the grass.
Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides (Guenée), Mythimna separata (Walker), Spodoptera exempta (Walker), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) rarely destroy rice. Adult moths are nocturnal. At night, the adults eat, copulate, and migrate, while the moths rest at the base of the plant during the day. Moths are very attracted to light.
Larvae are very voracious, and attacks occur in all phases of rice plant growth, starting from seedling, especially in dry nurseries, to the filling phase.
Birds attack rice plants in the milk ripening phase until the seeds ripen (before harvest). The attack resulted in empty seeds, symptoms such as outskirts, and many seeds were lost. Birds should be controlled by:
Bird watchers start from 6-10 am and 2-6 pm because these times are critical times for plants attacked by birds. Use nets to isolate rice fields from bird attacks; the area of isolated rice fields is less than 0.