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Home Articles Tungro


23 March 2022
3 mins read

Tungro is one of the critical diseases in rice which is very destructive and widespread. In Indonesia, initially, this disease was limited to South Sulawesi. Still, since the early 1980s, it has spread to Bali, East Java, and now it has spread to almost all parts of Indonesia. When the plant is infected, tungro can cause 5-70% yield loss. The earlier the plant is infected with tungro, the greater the yield loss it causes.

The prominent symptoms of tungro attack are leaf discoloration and stunted growth of plants. This characteristic symptom is determined by the level of varietal resistance, environmental conditions, and the growing phase at which the plant was infected. The leaf color of diseased plants varies from slightly yellow to orange. The level of stunting of plants also varies from slightly stunted to very stunted.

Tungro disease is transmitted by green leafhoppers and can be controlled through the alternation of resistant varieties with different parents, the timing of planting, sanitation by eliminating diseased plant sources, and suppression of green leafhopper populations with insecticides. Several tungro-resistant varieties include Tukad Petanu, Tukad Unda, Tukad Balian, Kalimas, and Bondoyudo. Some ways that can also be done are:

  • Set the planting time simultaneously at least 20 ha of rice fields;
  • Planting seeds at the right time, namely by planting seeds a month before the peak density of green leafhoppers is reached;
  • Planting in a row alternately between two or more rows of rice plants and one empty row;
  • When the plants are 2-3 weeks after planting, if 2 plants with symptoms of more than 10 clumps are found, apply an effective insecticide to kill green leafhoppers; and
  • Do not dry the rice fields. Leave the water conditions at field capacity so that the green leafhoppers are not actively dispersed to spread the tungro.

Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.