Rattus argentiventer (Rob. & Kloss) or rats damage rice plants at all stages of growth, from seedling to harvest, even storage. Severe damage occurs if mice attack rice in the generative phase because the plants can no longer form new tillers. In severe attacks, rats damage rice plants starting from the center of the plot, extending towards the edge, leaving 1-2 rows of rice at the edge of the plot.
Rats attack rice at night. During the day, rats hide in their nests in irrigation dams, rice fields, barriers, and rural areas near rice fields. In the fallow period, most rats migrated to the village areas near the rice fields and will return to the rice fields after planting approaches generative. The presence of rats in rice fields can be detected by monitoring the presence of footprints, runways, feces, active potholes, and signs of attack. Rats reproduce very quickly and only occur in the generative period of rice. One female rat can give birth to 80 cubs in one growing season. Rat control is carried out through the IRPC (Integrated Rat Pest Control) approach, namely management based on the biology and ecology of rats, carried out jointly by farmers from an early age (before planting), intensively and continuously, utilizing various available control technologies, and within the target area of large-scale control.
At the beginning of the season, rat control is emphasized to suppress the initial population of rats, which is done through mass pest repelling tradition, habitat sanitation, installation of TBS (Trap Barrier System) and LTBS, installation of trap traps in nurseries. FFB is a rice crop planted 3 weeks earlier, minimum size (20x20) m, 60 cm high plastic fenced with bamboo stakes at 1 meter apart, trapping traps on each side of the plastic fence with holes facing out, and equipped with a narrow barrier as an entrance for rats.
FFB is surrounded by a 50 cm wide moat that is always flooded to prevent rats from digging or perforating the plastic fence. The working principle of TBS is to attract rats from the surrounding rice fields (up to a radius of 200 m) because the rats are attracted to the rice planted earlier and are pregnant first to reduce the rat population throughout the plantation. LTBS is a stretch of plastic fence > 100 m long, equipped with traps on both sides alternately to catch mice from two directions (habitat and rice fields). LTBS is installed near rat habitats such as the edge of the village, along with irrigation and large dams. LTBS is also effective in catching migratory rats by installing LTBS on the migration path through which rats pass so that rats can be directed into trap traps. Fumigation is most effective in the generative phase when most mice are in the hole for reproduction. This method is effective in killing mice and their babies in the holes. Rodenticides should only be used when the rat population is very high, and are only effective in the fallow period and the early vegetative phase.
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides (Guenée), Mythimna separata (Walker), Spodoptera exempta (Walker), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) rarely destroy rice. Adult moths are nocturnal. At night, the adults eat, copulate, and migrate, while the moths rest at the base of the plant during the day. Moths are very attracted to light.
Larvae are very voracious, and attacks occur in all phases of rice plant growth, starting from seedling, especially in dry nurseries, to the filling phase.
Birds attack rice plants in the milk ripening phase until the seeds ripen (before harvest). The attack resulted in empty seeds, symptoms such as outskirts, and many seeds were lost. Birds should be controlled by:
Bird watchers start from 6-10 am and 2-6 pm because these times are critical times for plants attacked by birds. Use nets to isolate rice fields from bird attacks; the area of isolated rice fields is less than 0.
Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) The brown planthopper (BPH) has been one of the main pests of rice in Indonesia since the mid-1970s. This is a consequence of applying a rice intensification system (high yielding varieties, high doses of N fertilization, application of IP>200, etc.). The use of pesticides that violate the rules of IPM (right type, correct dose, and timely application) also triggers the brown planthopper explosion. Depending on the level of damage, a brown planthopper attack can increase rice yield losses from only a few quintals of grain to crop failure.