Scirpophaga incertulas (yellow stem borer), S. innotata (white stem borer), Chilo suppressalis (striped stem borer). Stem borer is one of the most critical pests on rice plants which often causes heavy damage and high yield losses. In the field, the presence of this pest is indicated by the presence of moths (butterflies), death of rice shoots (stem borer, dead heart), death of panicles (outs, whiteheads), and stem borer caterpillars (larvae).
This pest can damage plants at all growth phases, both in the nursery, tillering, and flowering phases. If the attack occurs in the greenhouse until the tillering stage, this pest is called stem borer, and if it occurs during flowering. So far, there are no stem borer-resistant varieties. Therefore, the symptoms of this pest attack need to be watched out for, especially in the rainy season. Proper planting time is an effective way to avoid stem borer attacks. Avoid planting in December-January, because the temperature, humidity, and rainfall at that time are very suitable for stem borer development. In contrast, newly planted rice plants are susceptible to this pest.
Control measures must be taken immediately if >10% of clumps show stem borer or goosebumps symptoms. Insecticides that are effective against the 3-stem borer are available at agricultural facilities kiosks, especially those with active ingredients: carbofuran, benzene, carbosulfan, dimenhipo, amitraz, and fipronil. Before using a pesticide product, read and understand the information on the label. Except for butterflies that fly a lot, don’t use spray pesticides for stem borer and outs.
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) Gall midge is generally not a significant pest of rice in Indonesia. This pest is only mildly harmful, very Balail, and only occurs in certain seasons. However, malignancy can occur since planting is still in the nursery until the plant reaches the primordia phase. The typical symptom of gall midge is rice shoots that grow into a shape like a nipple or a leek, with varying lengths, 15-20 cm.