In rice ecosystems in Asia, there are two species of Black Bug, namely the Malayan Black Bug, Scotinophara (=Podops) coarctata and the Japanese Black Bug Scotinophara (=Podops) lurida. Many more species are similar to the two bedbugs but rarely reach abundance amount. These two bedbugs are often in abundance, and because control with pesticides is difficult, these pests often cause heavy losses. During the day, old black-and-brown bedbugs cluster together at the base of the rice stalks, right at the edge of a puddle of water. At night they climb rice stalks and suck fluids from the plant tissue. During the dry season, Black Bugs spend their time in parts of the land overgrown with grass. Ground bedbugs can fly to rice fields and breed in several generations.
They return to their dormant phase after the rice is harvested. Adult bedbugs can move long distances. Adult bedbugs are attracted to light with a strong intensity, and the highest catch is obtained during the full moon. The suction of fluids by bedbugs causes the plant’s color to turn reddish-brown or yellow. The book on the stem is a preferred suction site because it stores a lot of liquid. Suction by soil bedbugs in the tillering phase causes fewer tillers and stunted growth (dwarf). If the attack occurs after the pregnant phase, the plant produces stunted panicles, incomplete panicle exertion, and empty grain. Under high bedbug populations, sucked plants can die or experience bug burn, such as hopper burn by brown planthoppers. Ground bedbugs can be controlled by:
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
Golden apple snails damage plants by grating plant tissue and eating it, causing seeds to be lost in the crop. The former pieces of leaves and stems that he attacked look floating. The critical time for controlling golden snails is 10 days after transplanting or 21 days after sowing (wet seeds). After that, the plant growth rate is greater than the rate of damage by golden snails.
In the event of an invasion of golden snails, rice fields need to be drained immediately because golden snails are like places that are flooded with water.