Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is a widespread bacterial disease and reduces yields by up to 36%. The disease occurs in the rainy or wet-dry season, especially in paddy fields that are constantly flooded and fertilized with high N (> 250 kg urea/ha). BLB disease produces two distinctive symptoms, namely crackle, and blight. Crackle is a symptom that occurs in plants <30 days old (nursery or newly moved). The leaves are gray-green, folded, and curled. In severe cases, the entire leaf curls, wilts, and dies, much like a plant that has been attacked by a stem borer or exposed to hot water (soften).
Meanwhile, blight is the most common symptom found in plants that have reached the sapling until the ripening phase. Symptoms begin with the appearance of gray (yellowish) spots generally on the edges of the leaves. In its development, the symptoms will expand, forming blights, and eventually, the leaves dry up. In humid conditions (especially in the morning), groups of bacteria, in the form of golden yellow granules, can be easily found on leaves that show blight symptoms. With the help of wind, friction between leaves, and splashes of rain, this mass of bacteria serves to spread BLB disease.
BLB disease is effectively controlled with resistant varieties; complete fertilization; and water regulation. For areas endemic to BLB disease, plant resistant varieties such as Code and Angke and use NPK fertilizer in the correct dose. Whenever possible, avoid continuous flooding, e.g., 1 day inundated and 3 days dry.
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
Cause: Unknown Red Stripe (URS) or Red Stripe (RS) is a relatively new rice disease that was first discovered in Subang, West Java, in 1987. This disease generally occurs in leaves, rice fields with poor drainage conditions, and plants that have reached the generative growth phase. This disease causes the grain is not to be fully filled or even empty. HDJ is negatively correlated with site height because the higher the site, the milder the disease.
Sheath blight is a significant disease in rice plants. This disease destroys the midrib, so it is necessary to open the planting canopy to find and recognize the condition. The disease causes plants to fall quickly. The earlier it falls, the greater the loss it causes. This disease causes the grain to be less filled or even empty. Sheath blight usually occurs when the plant begins to form tillers until just before harvest.