Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) Gall midge is generally not a significant pest of rice in Indonesia. This pest is only mildly harmful, very Balail, and only occurs in certain seasons. However, malignancy can occur since planting is still in the nursery until the plant reaches the primordia phase. The typical symptom of gall midge is rice shoots that grow into a shape like a nipple or a leek, with varying lengths, 15-20 cm. Saplings that are attacked by gall midge are not able to produce panicles. The adult insect Orseolia oryzae resembles a tiny mosquito and cannot fly, so its spread is limited. These insects are nocturnal and are very attracted to light. Strong pests can be controlled through the following steps:
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
Scirpophaga incertulas (yellow stem borer), S. innotata (white stem borer), Chilo suppressalis (striped stem borer). Stem borer is one of the most critical pests on rice plants which often causes heavy damage and high yield losses. In the field, the presence of this pest is indicated by the presence of moths (butterflies), death of rice shoots (stem borer, dead heart), death of panicles (outs, whiteheads), and stem borer caterpillars (larvae).