Birds attack rice plants in the milk ripening phase until the seeds ripen (before harvest). The attack resulted in empty seeds, symptoms such as outskirts, and many seeds were lost. Birds should be controlled by:
Source: Putra, R. (2018). Hama dan penyakit tanaman padi dan deskripsi padi sawah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kepulauan Riau.
Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides (Guenée), Mythimna separata (Walker), Spodoptera exempta (Walker), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) rarely destroy rice. Adult moths are nocturnal. At night, the adults eat, copulate, and migrate, while the moths rest at the base of the plant during the day. Moths are very attracted to light.
Larvae are very voracious, and attacks occur in all phases of rice plant growth, starting from seedling, especially in dry nurseries, to the filling phase.
Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) The brown planthopper (BPH) has been one of the main pests of rice in Indonesia since the mid-1970s. This is a consequence of applying a rice intensification system (high yielding varieties, high doses of N fertilization, application of IP>200, etc.). The use of pesticides that violate the rules of IPM (right type, correct dose, and timely application) also triggers the brown planthopper explosion. Depending on the level of damage, a brown planthopper attack can increase rice yield losses from only a few quintals of grain to crop failure.
Melanitis leda ismene Cramer Moths are not attracted to light. The moth is in the form of a giant butterfly, which is very easy to recognize because there are spots shaped like eyes on its wings. Larvae have 2 pairs of horns, one pair at the tip of the head and the other pair at the end of the abdomen. Larvae cause damage to plants, eating leaves starting from the edges and tips of the leaves.